ISEB Foundation Chapter3 - Tài liệu ISEB Chương 3

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ISEB Foundation Chapter3 - Tài liệu ISEB Chương 3

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Chapter 3:
Dynamic Testing Techniques

"…The system was not fully tested to a satisfactory level of quality and resilience before full implementation on 26 October 1992."

Extract from the main conclusions of the official report into the failure of the London Ambulance Service's Computer Systems on October 26th and 27th and November 4th 1992.


This module introduces idea of a test case design technique. Broadly, these are categorized as either functional or structural testing techniques. The advantage of using these proven design methods is that they provide a more intelligent and effective means of identifying tests than a purely intuitive approach. You will be expected to know two functional techniques and two structural techniques in detail and be aware there are many other techniques that can be applied to test case design. There are many excellent books on testing techniques some of which are listed in the appendix.


After completing this module you will:
- Understand the difference between black box (functional) and white box (structural) testing techniques.
- Be able to name at least three black box techniques.


Each of the techniques we are about to describe has its strengths and weaknesses. A useful rule of thumb is that if you are having difficulty applying a particular technique to a testing problem then perhaps you ought to try a different technique. This section introduces the different types of testing technique and discusses the difference between them.

3.3.1 Functional test techniques

Functional test techniques are often referred to as 'black box' test techniques and the common parlance is that we are 'doing black box testing'. A functional test technique will help design test cases based on functionality of component or system under test, without necessarily having to understand underlying detail of software design. Consider functionality of system of determine test inputs and expected results.


The following list of black box techniques is from BS 7925-2. On this course we will describe and give an example of only those ones highlighted in bold:

- Equivalent Partitioning.
- Boundary Value Analysis

3.5 White Box Techniques

The following list of white box techniques is from BS7925¬2. On this course we will describe and give an example of only those ones highlighted in bold.

- Statement testing
- Branch Decision Testing.

3.5.1 Comparison of white box techniques from "Software Testing in the Real World"

Each column in this figure represents a distinct method of white-box testing, and each row (1-4) defines a different test characteristics. For a given method (column), "Y" in a given row means that test characteristic is required for method. "N" signifies no requirement. "Implicit" means test characteristic is achieved implicitly by other requirements of method. (@ 1993, 1994 Software Development Technologies) reproduced with permission.

3.7 Summary

In module three you have learnt that applying a formal, recognized testing technique in a systematic way is the most effective approach to finding errors in software. In particular you can now

- Explain the difference between black box (functional) and white box (structural) testing techniques.
- Name at least three black box techniques.
- Use equivalence partitioning and boundary value analysis to design test cases.
- Recognize a state transition testing technique.
- Name at least three white box techniques.
- Understand what the meaning of statement testing and branch testing.
- Use the standard BS7925 to find out more about testing techniques.
- Know when to apply error-guessing techniques to supplement the formal techniques.

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